Survival Kit Mag Issue 9
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Carry out the following: 1. Your map is now set or orientated, in relation to the ground. Make certain that the map is pointing in the right direction, i. You must also find and identify the same objects on your map, using them as shown in the diagram below by turning your map to set or orientate it in relation to the ground.
North, East, South and West are known as the cardinal points of the compass. These 16 are the four cardinal points and 12 intermediate points as shown in the diagram on the next page. In the intermediate points these letters are combined, e. SE is South East. These points describe direction only to within one sixteenth of the full circle: for more accurate indication of direction it is necessary to use subdivisions of the circle using "mils" or "degrees".
The mils system is used by the Army to give much greater accuracy than degrees. The four quadrants or quarters of the circle are each mils, and so the East, South, and West points fall at , , mils respectively, as illustrated. This is called the Annual Magnetic Change and must be taken into account when converting magnetic bearings to Grid Bearings and vice versa. These two factors are included in the marginal information on the map. However, this can be ignored for practical map reading purposes.
Having done so make a note of it on your compass base with a small sticky label, don't forget to allow for it. Point the compass direction of march arrow at the object. Turn compass housing until the red arrow is under the needle. This could be as a result of being "dropped-off" on an exercise or if you were unfortunate enough to crash land in wild country.
You could find your position by using a compass and following the instructions set out below. You will need to refer to the diagram on this page. Select TWO prominent objects or features which you can be sure of identifying on the map. Check the resulting bearing and adjust it to the nearest 25 mils.
Remember the settings or divisions on the compass card of a Silva or Light Weight Compass are 25 mils.
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Use a wax pencil with a fine point , put the point on "A". Hold the compass firmly in this position while you draw a line along the side of the compass. Repeat the same procedure from point "B". Now work out your exact six figure GRID reference of your location. The feature should be easy to pick out, provided it is not too far away and that it is on your map!
After a while you will be able to locate and identify features by just looking across the map. In setting your map, no matter what method you use, it is the constant relating and comparison of the map and ground which will build a good foundation for your navigational skills. We remind you that this skill above all will go a long way to prevent you from getting lost. The ability to use your compass and to trust it by taking a back bearing on to the point from which you started, will prevent you from getting into difficulties.
The simplicity of the Silva compass makes the use of back bearings an easy navigational aid. This is a very important skill - easily learned with a compass, it is one of the best methods of preventing yourself from getting lost. These appear as thin brown lines on the map and are described as "an imaginary line joining all points of equal height above sea level".
You must check the information at the bottom of the map near the scale diagram to find the "Contour Interval", that is the height between each contour. To give you a better understanding of contours the following pages of information and diagrams will explain them. They do not provide a picture of the shape of the land, but with practice and using contours you will be able to interpret the shape of the ground from the contour lines - mapcraft at its best! Until you have mastered your map craft it is difficult to know from a contour whether the ground is rising or falling, whether the feature is a spur or a re-entrant.
A spur projects out from the land mass, while a re-entrant is exactly the opposite - a shallow valley running up into the mass. It is not always possible, however, to tell which is the top of the slope and which is the bottom, without being able to find the contour figures.
When the contour figures can be read with both the map and the figures the correct way up you would be able to tell if the ground is rising or falling. A general idea of which way the slopes run can be obtained by looking at other features - particularly lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and railway lines. A stream running near a set of contours indicates at once which is the bottom of the slope. Similar features such as railways, villages and large woods are more likely to be found at the bottom of a hill than at the top.
Standing at the top of a CONVEX slope you would not be able to see all the way down to the bottom, because the outward slope would obscure your view.
This is important to recognise as ground that you cannot see - "dead ground" it can conceal the enemy or give you cover from view. It is important to be able to recognise these two types of slopes from the map. CONTOUR VALUES If you had several paths right round a hill, each one keeping at the same level, and were walking round one of them, you would find that where the paths were near to each other the ground would be steep between them, and where the paths were some distance apart, the ground would slope gently, the further they were apart, the less the slope would be.
This is the exact height in metres or feet above sea level. This Conventional Sign will go out of use in future years as advanced methods of map making come into use. Broken, rugged country is shown by irregular, sharply turning contours. On gentle slopes the contours appear as smooth flowing curves. The contours may appear to wander about all over, but if you follow them they naturally come back to where they started from, the only exception to this is when you find a cliff face with a sheer drop, then all the contour lines are so close together they appear to be one.
Every curve or bend in a contour indicates a SPUR or a valley, a rise or fall in the ground, just as it does on the side of a hill. Remember - the distance the contours apart still indicate the steepness or flatness of the ground. Each contour is drawn at a specific height above sea level and each one is the same vertical height above the one below.
The difference in height between contours is called the Vertical Interval VI. These heights are written into the contour lines at intervals along their length.
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On Ordnance Survey maps the figures showing the height of the contours are always written so as they read facing up hill, it is important to remember this as you can very quickly find out which direction the ground is sloping. Whenever you are "out on the ground', you should look at the ground formation in the area, draw those imaginary contour lines around the hills and valleys, make a rough sketch and then get a map of the area and see how well you have been able to interpret the ground. Contours close together mean steep slopes.
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Contours far apart mean gentle slopes. When contours are evenly spaced the slope is uniform, these slopes have small undulations and pockets of dead ground. When the spacing of the contours reading from high ground to low, decreases, the slope is convex. Convex slopes mean short visibility; dead ground becomes very close. When spacing of contours, reading from high to low, increases, the slope is concave. Concave slopes mean good visibility and little dead ground. Wandering contours at various distances apart and never close, mean undulating ground. Important to note the general direction of the fall in the ground.
Gently curving contours indicate an area of country of rounded slopes. As the ground becomes steeper the contours come closer together, as it becomes more rugged the curves disappear and the contours take on 'jagged' shapes. The way that the 'scale' of a map is expressed is by the Representative Fraction.
It used to be expressed in words, e. This is now being superseded by the RF method. The Representative Fraction RF is the standard method used on all continental maps and wherever the metric system is used. Most British maps are now expressed in metric. The essential connection is that the SAME unit of measurement applies both to the map and to the ground measurement.
All maps are printed with graphic linear scales, usually in the centre of the bottom margin, from which any horizontal distance may be measured on the map in kilometres and metres, or in miles and yards. In the case of the Magpul PMAG 27 GL9 , it is to fill a very specific need that just happens to make sense to anyone who wonders about how to best prepare their 9mm double stack Glock for unconventional times.
Rather, the feel is a harder, sharper plastic, er…polymer. The reason is simple. Further, Glock-brand mags have a steel case wrapped by the black plastic we all know and love. The Magpuls on the other hand, have no such steel insert and therefore must retain the perfect shape with plastic alone. The controlled-tilt follower is a welcome bright orange color making the end the line absolutely obvious. And pushing up the follower from the easily removable baseplate is a corrosion resistant stainless steel spring.
And speaking of the floor plate, it has a pair of dot matrix panels that make easy recessed marking-up possible to keep your mags organized. And being who I am, I waited until the Gen2 Glock 17 came out before jumping on the polymer bandwagon. I thought the Gen2 Glock was the bomb until the Gen3 was released with a small under-barrel rail section. Until that time, there was little to put on a rail, but the timespace between the Gen2 and 3 allowed other gear to evolve putting tactical into the household vocabulary.
Suddenly I needed a rail.
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Shortly after I needed a round magazine. You know. And several of them for the same reason. The Sense of Survival. Orem, Utah: Timpanogos Publishers.
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