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By prision mayor, if such correspondence be carried on in ciphers or conventional signs; and. By reclusion temporal, if notice or information be given thereby which might be useful to the enemy. If the offender intended to aid the enemy by giving such notice or information, he shall suffer the penalty of reclusion temporal to death.

The same penalty shall be inflicted in case of mutiny on the high seas. Qualified piracy. Whenever the pirates have abandoned their victims without means of saving themselves; or. Whenever the crime is accompanied by murder, homicide, physical injuries or rape. The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, if the detention has continued more than three but not more than fifteen days;. The penalty of prision mayor, if the detention has continued for more than fifteen days but not more than six months; and. That of reclusion temporal, if the detention shall have exceeded six months.

Delay in the delivery of detained persons to the proper judicial authorities. In every case, the person detained shall be informed of the cause of his detention and shall be allowed upon his request, to communicate and confer at any time with his attorney or counsel. Delaying release.

If the offense be committed in the night-time, or if any papers or effects not constituting evidence of a crime be not returned immediately after the search made by the offender, the penalty shall be prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods. Search warrants maliciously obtained and abuse in the service of those legally obtained.

Searching domicile without witnesses. The same penalty shall be imposed upon a public officer or employee who shall hinder any person from joining any lawful association or from attending any of its meetings.

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The same penalty shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall prohibit or hinder any person from addressing, either alone or together with others, any petition to the authorities for the correction of abuses or redress of grievances. If the crime shall have been committed with violence or threats, the penalty shall be prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods.

509 Informative Speech Ideas and Topics

Offending the religious feelings. Article A. Coup d'etat; How committed. As amended by R. Penalty for rebellion, insurrection or coup d'etat. Any person merely participating or executing the commands of others in a rebellion shall suffer the penalty of reclusion temporal. Any person who leads or in any manner directs or commands others to undertake a coup d'etat shall suffer the penalty of reclusion perpetua. Any person in the government service who participates, or executes directions or commands of others in undertaking a coup d'etat shall suffer the penalty of prision mayor in its maximum period.

Any person not in the government service who participates, or in any manner supports, finances, abets or aids in undertaking a coup d'etat shall suffer the penalty of reclusion temporal in its maximum period. When the rebellion, insurrection, or coup d'etat shall be under the command of unknown leaders, any person who in fact directed the others, spoke for them, signed receipts and other documents issued in their name, as performed similar acts, on behalf or the rebels shall be deemed a leader of such a rebellion, insurrection, or coup d'etat.

Conspiracy and proposal to commit coup d'etat, rebellion or insurrection. The conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion or insurrection shall be punished respectively, by prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine which shall not exceed five thousand pesos P5, Disloyalty of public officers or employees. Reinstated by E. Inciting a rebellion or insurrection. Sedition; How committed. To prevent the National Government, or any provincial or municipal government or any public officer thereof from freely exercising its or his functions, or prevent the execution of any administrative order;.

To inflict any act of hate or revenge upon the person or property of any public officer or employee;. To commit, for any political or social end, any act of hate or revenge against private persons or any social class; and. To despoil, for any political or social end, any person, municipality or province, or the National Government or the Government of the United States , of all its property or any part thereof. Other persons participating therein shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine not exceeding 5, pesos.

Conspiracy to commit sedition. Inciting to sedition. Disturbance of proceedings. If any person present at the meeting carries an unlicensed firearm, it shall be presumed that the purpose of said meeting, insofar as he is concerned, is to commit acts punishable under this Code, and he shall be considered a leader or organizer of the meeting within the purview of the preceding paragraph. As used in this article, the word "meeting" shall be understood to include a gathering or group, whether in a fixed place or moving.

Illegal associations. Mere members of said associations shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor. Indirect assaults. Disobedience to summons issued by the National Assembly, its committees or subcommittees, by the Constitutional Commissions, its committees, subcommittees or divisions. The same penalty shall be imposed upon any person who shall restrain another from attending as a witness, or who shall induce disobedience to a summon or refusal to be sworn by any such body or official.

Resistance and disobedience to a person in authority or the agents of such person. When the disobedience to an agent of a person in authority is not of a serious nature, the penalty of arresto menor or a fine ranging from 10 to P pesos shall be imposed upon the offender. Persons in authority and agents of persons in authority; Who shall be deemed as such.

A barrio captain and a barangay chairman shall also be deemed a person in authority. A person who, by direct provision of law or by election or by appointment by competent authority, is charged with the maintenance of public order and the protection and security of life and property, such as a barrio councilman, barrio policeman and barangay leader and any person who comes to the aid of persons in authority, shall be deemed an agent of a person in authority. In applying the provisions of Articles and of this Code, teachers, professors and persons charged with the supervision of public or duly recognized private schools, colleges and universities, and lawyers in the actual performance of their professional duties or on the occasion of such performance, shall be deemed persons in authority.

As amended by PD No.


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The penalty next higher in degree shall be imposed upon persons causing any disturbance or interruption of a tumultuous character. The disturbance or interruption shall be deemed to be tumultuous if caused by more than three persons who are armed or provided with means of violence.

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The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon any person who in any meeting, association, or public place, shall make any outcry tending to incite rebellion or sedition or in such place shall display placards or emblems which provoke a disturbance of the public order. The penalty of arresto menor and a fine not to exceed P pesos shall be imposed upon these persons who in violation of the provisions contained in the last clause of Article 85, shall bury with pomp the body of a person who has been legally executed. Unlawful use of means of publication and unlawful utterances.

Any person who by the same means, or by words, utterances or speeches shall encourage disobedience to the law or to the constituted authorities or praise, justify, or extol any act punished by law;. Any person who shall maliciously publish or cause to be published any official resolution or document without proper authority, or before they have been published officially; or.

Any person who shall print, publish, or distribute or cause to be printed, published, or distributed books, pamphlets, periodicals, or leaflets which do not bear the real printer's name, or which are classified as anonymous. Any person who shall instigate or take an active part in any charivari or other disorderly meeting offensive to another or prejudicial to public tranquility;.

Any person who, while wandering about at night or while engaged in any other nocturnal amusements, shall disturb the public peace; or. Any person who, while intoxicated or otherwise, shall cause any disturbance or scandal in public places, provided that the circumstances of the case shall not make the provisions of Article applicable.

If the escape of the prisoner shall take place outside of said establishments by taking the guards by surprise, the same penalties shall be imposed in their minimum period. Evasion of service of sentence on the occasion of disorder, conflagrations, earthquakes, or other calamities.

Convicts who, under the circumstances mentioned in the preceding paragraph, shall give themselves up to the authorities within the above mentioned period of 48 hours, shall be entitled to the deduction provided in Article Other cases of evasion of service of sentence. However, if the penalty remitted by the granting of such pardon be higher than six years, the convict shall then suffer the unexpired portion of his original sentence.

Any convict of the class referred to in this article, who is not a habitual criminal, shall be pardoned at the age of seventy years if he shall have already served out his original sentence, or when he shall complete it after reaching the said age, unless by reason of his conduct or other circumstances he shall not be worthy of such clemency. Counterfeiting the great seal of the Government of the Philippine Islands, forging the signature or stamp of the Chief Executive. Using forged signature or counterfeit seal or stamp.

Prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a fine of not to exceed P2, pesos, if the counterfeited coins be any of the minor coinage of the Philippines or of the Central Bank of the Philippines below ten-centavo denomination. Prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed P1, pesos, if the counterfeited coin be currency of a foreign country.

Selling of false or mutilated coin, without connivance. The word "obligation or security of the United States or of the Philippine Islands" shall be held to mean all bonds, certificates of indebtedness, national bank notes, fractional notes, certificates of deposit, bills, checks, or drafts for money, drawn by or upon authorized officers of the United States or of the Philippine Islands, and other representatives of value, of whatever denomination, which have been or may be issued under any act of the Congress of the United States or of the Philippine Legislature.

By prision mayor in its maximum period and a fine not to exceed P5, pesos, if the falsified or altered document is a circulating note issued by any banking association duly authorized by law to issue the same. By prision mayor in its medium period and a fine not to exceed P5, pesos, if the falsified or counterfeited document was issued by a foreign government. By prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed P2, pesos, when the forged or altered document is a circulating note or bill issued by a foreign bank duly authorized therefor.

Illegal possession and use of false treasury or bank notes and other instruments of credit.


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  6. How forgery is committed. By erasing, substituting, counterfeiting or altering by any means the figures, letters, words or signs contained therein. Falsification by public officer, employee or notary or ecclesiastic minister. Causing it to appear that persons have participated in any act or proceeding when they did not in fact so participate;. Attributing to persons who have participated in an act or proceeding statements other than those in fact made by them;. Making untruthful statements in a narration of facts;. Making any alteration or intercalation in a genuine document which changes its meaning;.

    Issuing in an authenticated form a document purporting to be a copy of an original document when no such original exists, or including in such a copy a statement contrary to, or different from, that of the genuine original; or. Intercalating any instrument or note relative to the issuance thereof in a protocol, registry, or official book. Falsification by private individual and use of falsified documents. Any person who, to the damage of a third party, or with the intent to cause such damage, shall in any private document commit any of the acts of falsification enumerated in the next preceding article.

    Falsification of wireless, cable, telegraph and telephone messages, and use of said falsified messages. Any person who shall use such falsified dispatch to the prejudice of a third party or with the intent of cause such prejudice, shall suffer the penalty next lower in degree. Any public officer who shall issue a false certificate of merit of service, good conduct or similar circumstances. Using false certificates. Any person who, with the intention of using them, shall have in his possession any of the instruments or implements mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, shall suffer the penalty next lower in degree than that provided therein.

    Using fictitious name and concealing true name. Any person who conceals his true name and other personal circumstances shall be punished by arresto menor or a fine not to exceed pesos. Illegal use of uniforms or insignia. The penalty of prision mayor, if the defendant shall have been sentenced to reclusion temporal or reclusion perpetua;. The penalty of prision correccional, if the defendant shall have been sentenced to any other afflictive penalty; and. The penalty of arresto mayor, if the defendant shall have been sentenced to a correctional penalty or a fine, or shall have been acquitted.

    False testimony favorable to the defendants. False testimony in civil cases. False testimony in other cases and perjury in solemn affirmation. Any person who, in case of a solemn affirmation made in lieu of an oath, shall commit any of the falsehoods mentioned in this and the three preceding articles of this section, shall suffer the respective penalties provided therein.

    Offering false testimony in evidence. Monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade. Any person who shall monopolize any merchandise or object of trade or commerce, or shall combine with any other person or persons to monopolize and merchandise or object in order to alter the price thereof by spreading false rumors or making use of any other article to restrain free competition in the market;. Any person who, being a manufacturer, producer, or processor of any merchandise or object of commerce or an importer of any merchandise or object of commerce from any foreign country, either as principal or agent, wholesaler or retailer, shall combine, conspire or agree in any manner with any person likewise engaged in the manufacture, production, processing, assembling or importation of such merchandise or object of commerce or with any other persons not so similarly engaged for the purpose of making transactions prejudicial to lawful commerce, or of increasing the market price in any part of the Philippines, of any such merchandise or object of commerce manufactured, produced, processed, assembled in or imported into the Philippines, or of any article in the manufacture of which such manufactured, produced, or imported merchandise or object of commerce is used.

    Any property possessed under any contract or by any combination mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, and being the subject thereof, shall be forfeited to the Government of the Philippines. Whenever any of the offenses described above is committed by a corporation or association, the president and each one of its agents or representatives in the Philippines in case of a foreign corporation or association, who shall have knowingly permitted or failed to prevent the commission of such offense, shall be held liable as principals thereof.

    Any stamp, brand, label, or mark shall be deemed to fail to indicate the actual fineness of the article on which it is engraved, printed, stamped, labeled or attached, when the rest of the article shows that the quality or fineness thereof is less by more than one-half karat, if made of gold, and less by more than four one-thousandth, if made of silver, than what is shown by said stamp, brand, label or mark.

    But in case of watch cases and flatware made of gold, the actual fineness of such gold shall not be less by more than three one-thousandth than the fineness indicated by said stamp, brand, label, or mark. Subsisting and altering trade-mark, trade-names, or service marks. Any person who shall sell such articles of commerce or offer the same for sale, knowing that the trade-name or trade- mark has been fraudulently used in such goods as described in the preceding subdivision;.

    Any person who, in the sale or advertising of his services, shall use or substitute the service mark of some other person, or a colorable imitation of such mark; or. Any person who, knowing the purpose for which the trade-name, trade-mark, or service mark of a person is to be used, prints, lithographs, or in any way reproduces such trade-name, trade-mark, or service mark, or a colorable imitation thereof, for another person, to enable that other person to fraudulently use such trade-name, trade-mark, or service mark on his own goods or in connection with the sale or advertising of his services.

    A service mark as herein used is a mark used in the sale or advertising of services to identify the services of one person and distinguish them from the services of others and includes without limitation the marks, names, symbols, titles, designations, slogans, character names, and distinctive features of radio or other advertising. Unfair competition, fraudulent registration of trade-mark, trade-name or service mark, fraudulent designation of origin, and false description.

    Any person who shall affix, apply, annex or use in connection with any goods or services or any container or containers for goods a false designation of origin or any false description or representation and shall sell such goods or services. Any person who by means of false or fraudulent representation or declarations orally or in writing or by other fraudulent means shall procure from the patent office or from any other office which may hereafter be established by law for the purposes the registration of a trade-name, trade-mark or service mark or of himself as the owner of such trade-name, trade-mark or service mark or an entry respecting a trade-name, trade-mark or service mark.

    By narcotic drug is meant a drug that produces a condition of insensibility and melancholy dullness of mind with delusions and may be habit-forming. Anyone who shall maintain a dive or resort where any prohibited drug is used in any form, in violation of the law. Any person who, not being included in the provisions of the next preceding article, shall knowingly visit any dive or resort of the character referred to above.

    Illegal possession of opium pipe or other paraphernalia for the use of any prohibited drug. Prescribing opium unnecessary for a patient. Any person who shall knowingly permit any form of gambling referred to in the preceding subdivision to be carried on in any unhabited or uninhabited place of any building, vessel or other means of transportation owned or controlled by him.

    If the place where gambling is carried on has the reputation of a gambling place or that prohibited gambling is frequently carried on therein, the culprit shall be punished by the penalty provided for in this article in its maximum period. Importation, sale and possession of lottery tickets or advertisements. Any person who shall knowingly and with intent to use them, have in his possession lottery tickets or advertisements, or shall sell or distribute the same without connivance with the importer of the same, shall be punished by arresto menor, or a fine not exceeding pesos, or both, in the discretion of the court.

    The possession of any lottery ticket or advertisement shall be prima facie evidence of an intent to sell, distribute or use the same in the Philippine Islands. Betting in sports contests. Illegal betting on horse race. The penalty of arresto mayor or a fine ranging from to 2, pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon any person who, under the same circumstances, shall maintain or employ a totalizer or other device or scheme for betting on horse races or realizing any profit therefrom.

    For the purposes of this article, any race held in the same day at the same place shall be held punishable as a separate offense, and if the same be committed by any partnership, corporation or association, the president and the directors or managers thereof shall be deemed to be principals in the offense if they have consented to or knowingly tolerated its commission. Illegal cockfighting. Any person who directly or indirectly participates in cockfights, at a place other than a licensed cockpit. Immoral doctrines, obscene publications and exhibitions and indecent shows.

    As amended by PD Nos. Any person found loitering about public or semi-public buildings or places or trampling or wandering about the country or the streets without visible means of support;. Any idle or dissolute person who ledges in houses of ill fame; ruffians or pimps and those who habitually associate with prostitutes;. Any person who, not being included in the provisions of other articles of this Code, shall be found loitering in any inhabited or uninhabited place belonging to another without any lawful or justifiable purpose;. Any person found guilty of any of the offenses covered by this articles shall be punished by arresto menor or a fine not exceeding pesos, and in case of recidivism, by arresto mayor in its medium period to prision correccional in its minimum period or a fine ranging from to 2, pesos, or both, in the discretion of the court.

    Judgment rendered through negligence. Unjust interlocutory order. Malicious delay in the administration of justice. Prosecution of offenses; negligence and tolerance. Betrayal of trust by an attorney or solicitor. The same penalty shall be imposed upon an attorney-at-law or solicitor procurador judicial who, having undertaken the defense of a client or having received confidential information from said client in a case, shall undertake the defense of the opposing party in the same case, without the consent of his first client.

    If the gift was accepted by the officer in consideration of the execution of an act which does not constitute a crime, and the officer executed said act, he shall suffer the same penalty provided in the preceding paragraph; and if said act shall not have been accomplished, the officer shall suffer the penalties of prision correccional, in its medium period and a fine of not less than twice the value of such gift. If the object for which the gift was received or promised was to make the public officer refrain from doing something which it was his official duty to do, he shall suffer the penalties of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine [of not less than the value of the gift and] not less than three times the value of such gift.

    In addition to the penalties provided in the preceding paragraphs, the culprit shall suffer the penalty of special temporary disqualification. The provisions contained in the preceding paragraphs shall be made applicable to assessors, arbitrators, appraisal and claim commissioners, experts or any other persons performing public duties. As amended by Batas Pambansa Blg. Indirect bribery.

    Corruption of public officials. Being entrusted with the collection of taxes, licenses, fees and other imposts, shall be guilty or any of the following acts or omissions:. Other frauds. Prohibited transactions. Possession of prohibited interest by a public officer. This provisions is applicable to experts, arbitrators and private accountants who, in like manner, shall take part in any contract or transaction connected with the estate or property in appraisal, distribution or adjudication of which they shall have acted, and to the guardians and executors with respect to the property belonging to their wards or estate.

    The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum and medium periods, if the amount involved is more than two hundred pesos but does not exceed six thousand pesos. The penalty of prision mayor in its maximum period to reclusion temporal in its minimum period, if the amount involved is more than six thousand pesos but is less than twelve thousand pesos. The penalty of reclusion temporal, in its medium and maximum periods, if the amount involved is more than twelve thousand pesos but is less than twenty-two thousand pesos. If the amount exceeds the latter, the penalty shall be reclusion temporal in its maximum period to reclusion perpetua.

    The failure of a public officer to have duly forthcoming any public funds or property with which he is chargeable, upon demand by any duly authorized officer, shall be prima facie evidence that he has put such missing funds or property to personal use. As amended by RA Failure of accountable officer to render accounts. Failure of a responsible public officer to render accounts before leaving the country. Illegal use of public funds or property. In either case, the offender shall also suffer the penalty of temporary special disqualification.

    If no damage or embarrassment to the public service has resulted, the penalty shall be a fine from 5 to 50 per cent of the sum misapplied. Failure to make delivery of public funds or property. This provision shall apply to any public officer who, being ordered by competent authority to deliver any property in his custody or under his administration, shall refuse to make such delivery. The fine shall be graduated in such case by the value of the thing, provided that it shall not less than 50 pesos. Officers included in the preceding provisions. By prision correccional in its minimum period and temporary special disqualification, in case the fugitive shall not have been finally convicted but only held as a detention prisoner for any crime or violation of law or municipal ordinance.

    Escape of prisoner under the custody of a person not a public officer. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium period and a fine not exceeding 1, pesos, whenever the damage to a third party or to the public interest shall not have been serious.

    Officer breaking seal. Opening of closed documents. Public officer revealing secrets of private individual. Disobedience to order of superior officers, when said order was suspended by inferior officer. Refusal of assistance. Refusal to discharge elective office. Maltreatment of prisoners. If the purpose of the maltreatment is to extort a confession, or to obtain some information from the prisoner, the offender shall be punished by prision correccional in its minimum period, temporary special disqualification and a fine not exceeding pesos, in addition to his liability for the physical injuries or damage caused.

    Prolonging performance of duties and powers. Abandonment of office or position. If such office shall have been abandoned in order to evade the discharge of the duties of preventing, prosecuting or punishing any of the crime falling within Title One, and Chapter One of Title Three of Book Two of this Code, the offender shall be punished by prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods, and by arresto mayor if the purpose of such abandonment is to evade the duty of preventing, prosecuting or punishing any other crime.

    Usurpation of executive functions. Usurpation of judicial functions. Disobeying request for disqualification. Orders or requests by executive officers to any judicial authority. Unlawful appointments. Any warden or other public officer directly charged with the care and custody of prisoners or persons under arrest who shall solicit or make immoral or indecent advances to a woman under his custody. Death or physical injuries inflicted under exceptional circumstances. If he shall inflict upon them physical injuries of any other kind, he shall be exempt from punishment.

    These rules shall be applicable, under the same circumstances, to parents with respect to their daughters under eighteen years of age, and their seducer, while the daughters are living with their parents. Any person who shall promote or facilitate the prostitution of his wife or daughter, or shall otherwise have consented to the infidelity of the other spouse shall not be entitled to the benefits of this article.

    In consideration of a price, reward, or promise.

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    By means of inundation, fire, poison, explosion, shipwreck, stranding of a vessel, derailment or assault upon a street car or locomotive, fall of an airship, by means of motor vehicles, or with the use of any other means involving great waste and ruin. On occasion of any of the calamities enumerated in the preceding paragraph, or of an earthquake, eruption of a volcano, destructive cyclone, epidemic or other public calamity.

    With evident premeditation. With cruelty, by deliberately and inhumanly augmenting the suffering of the victim, or outraging or scoffing at his person or corpse. Penalty for frustrated parricide, murder or homicide. The courts, considering the facts of the case, may likewise reduce by one degree the penalty which under Article 51 should be imposed for an attempt to commit any of such crimes.

    Death caused in a tumultuous affray. If it cannot be determined who inflicted the serious physical injuries on the deceased, the penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods shall be imposed upon all those who shall have used violence upon the person of the victim. Physical injuries inflicted in a tumultuous affray. When the physical injuries inflicted are of a less serious nature and the person responsible therefor cannot be identified, all those who appear to have used any violence upon the person of the offended party shall be punished by arresto mayor from five to fifteen days.

    Giving assistance to suicide. However, if the suicide is not consummated, the penalty of arresto mayor in its medium and maximum periods, shall be imposed. Discharge of firearms. If the crime penalized in this article be committed by the mother of the child for the purpose of concealing her dishonor, she shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, and if said crime be committed for the same purpose by the maternal grandparents or either of them, the penalty shall be prision mayor. Intentional abortion. The penalty of prision mayor if, without using violence, he shall act without the consent of the woman.

    The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, if the woman shall have consented. Abortion practiced by the woman herself of by her parents.

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    Any woman who shall commit this offense to conceal her dishonor, shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods. If this crime be committed by the parents of the pregnant woman or either of them, and they act with the consent of said woman for the purpose of concealing her dishonor, the offenders shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods.

    Abortion practiced by a physician or midwife and dispensing of abortives. Any pharmacist who, without the proper prescription from a physician, shall dispense any abortive shall suffer arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 1, pesos. If he shall inflict upon the latter physical injuries only, he shall suffer the penalty provided therefor, according to their nature.

    In any other case, the combatants shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor, although no physical injuries have been inflicted. The seconds shall in all events be punished as accomplices. Challenging to a duel. Any other intentional mutilation shall be punished by prision mayor in its medium and maximum periods. Serious physical injuries.

    The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, if in consequence of the physical injuries inflicted, the person injured shall have lost the use of speech or the power to hear or to smell, or shall have lost an eye, a hand, a foot, an arm, or a leg or shall have lost the use of any such member, or shall have become incapacitated for the work in which he was therefor habitually engaged;. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods, if in consequence of the physical injuries inflicted, the person injured shall have become deformed, or shall have lost any other part of his body, or shall have lost the use thereof, or shall have been ill or incapacitated for the performance of the work in which he as habitually engaged for a period of more than ninety days;.

    The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period, if the physical injuries inflicted shall have caused the illness or incapacity for labor of the injured person for more than thirty days. The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall not be applicable to a parent who shall inflict physical injuries upon his child by excessive chastisement. Administering injurious substances or beverages. Less serious physical injuries. Whenever less serious physical injuries shall have been inflicted with the manifest intent to kill or offend the injured person, or under circumstances adding ignominy to the offense in addition to the penalty of arresto mayor, a fine not exceeding pesos shall be imposed.

    Any less serious physical injuries inflicted upon the offender's parents, ascendants, guardians, curators, teachers, or persons of rank, or persons in authority, shall be punished by prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods, provided that, in the case of persons in authority, the deed does not constitute the crime of assault upon such person. Slight physical injuries and maltreatment. By arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 20 pesos and censure when the offender has caused physical injuries which do not prevent the offended party from engaging in his habitual work nor require medical assistance.

    By arresto menor in its minimum period or a fine not exceeding 50 pesos when the offender shall ill-treat another by deed without causing any injury. If it shall have been committed simulating public authority. If any serious physical injuries shall have been inflicted upon the person kidnapped or detained; or if threats to kill him shall have been made.

    If the person kidnapped or detained shall be a minor, female or a public officer. Slight illegal detention. The same penalty shall be incurred by anyone who shall furnish the place for the perpetration of the crime. If the offender shall voluntarily release the person so kidnapped or detained within three days from the commencement of the detention, without having attained the purpose intended, and before the institution of criminal proceedings against him, the penalty shall be prision mayor in its minimum and medium periods and a fine not exceeding seven hundred pesos.

    Unlawful arrest. Inducing a minor to abandon his home. If the person committing any of the crimes covered by the two preceding articles shall be the father or the mother of the minor, the penalty shall be arresto mayor or a fine not exceeding three hundred pesos, or both. If the crime be committed for the purpose of assigning the offended party to some immoral traffic, the penalty shall be imposed in its maximum period.

    Exploitation of child labor. An International Forum working paper on transnational kleptocracy and lessons learned from the Biens Mal Acquis trials in France, written by Tutu Alicante. The July issue of the Journal of Democracy features a cluster of six articles examining recent political trends in sub-Saharan Africa. The Forum's blog explores how authoritarians survive and thrive in the globalized age and how democracies content with this challenge. Major themes explored by the Forum include authoritarian influence, transnational kleptocracy, the information space, and democracy and civil society.

    Democracy Research News is the electronic newsletter of the Network of Democracy Research Institutes NDRI , a membership association of institutions that conduct and publish research on democracy and democratic development. Case studies in four young democracies examine how authoritarian governments are leveraging and repurposing traditional "soft power" tools into corrosive "sharp power.

    The July issue of the Journal of Democracy features a set of 6 articles examining recent political trends in sub-Saharan Africa. The audience provided context. I knew what was going on. My speakers must have blown! There is no way that a performance during the most-watched television event of all time sounds this horrible. Could it be?

    Do they really sound this bad? My sound system was fine. As the level of comfort with and reliance upon multiscreen media consumption grows among audiences, content producers are developing rich second-screen experiences for audiences that enhance the viewing experience. By visiting playrunway. In addition to interactive voting, fans could access short-form video, blogs, and photo galleries via mobile, tablet, and desktop devices. There are indications that second-screen consumption will move beyond the living room and into venues like movie theaters and sports stadiums.

    In , Major League Baseball will launch an application for wearable computing device Google Glass that will display real-time statistics to fans at baseball stadiums Thornburgh The Internet has also completely transformed the way music is distributed and experienced.

    Less than a decade after that, cloud-based music services and social sharing have become the norm. These shifts took place despite a music industry that did all it could to resist the digital revolution—until after it had already happened! The shareable, downloadable MP3 surfaced on the early web of the mids, and the music industry largely failed to recognize its potential. By the early s, the Recording Industry Association of America had filed high-profile lawsuits against peer-to-peer file sharing services like Napster and Limewire as well as private persons caught downloading music via their networks.

    Television having watched the music debacle adjusted far better to the realities of the content business in the digital age. But the recording industry was forced to catch up to its audience, which was already getting much of its music online legally or otherwise. Only in recent years did major labels agree to distribution deals with cloud-streaming services including Spotify, Rdio, iHeartRadio, and MOG.

    The music industry has experienced a slight increase in revenues in the past year, which can be attributed to both digital music sales and streaming royalties Faughnder Ironically, what the music industry fought so hard to prevent free music and sharing in the early days of the web is exactly what they ended up with today. There is more music available online now than ever before, and much of it is available for free. Applications like Spotify and Pandora give users access to vast catalogs of recorded music, and sites like SoundCloud and YouTube have enabled a new generation of artists to distribute their music with ease.

    There is also a social layer to many music services. Their sites and applications are designed to allow users to share their favorite songs, albums, and artists with one another. Spotify, SoundCloud, and YouTube among others enable playlist sharing. The rapid evolution of online music platforms has led to fundamental changes in the way we interact with music. The process of discovering and digesting music has become an almost frictionless process. Gone are the days when learning about a new artist required flipping through the pages of a magazine not to mention through stacks of albums at the record store.

    Fast forward to I was hosting a cocktail party at my home in San Francisco, which became an experiment in observing the effect of different kinds of Internet music services. In the kitchen, I played music via an iPod that contained songs and albums I had purchased over the years. And my collection still was not as good as my cool friends.

    In the living room, I streamed music via the Pandora app on my iPhone. Guests would pick stations, skip songs, or add variety as the night went on. Upstairs, I ran Spotify from my laptop. I had followed, as the service allows you to do, two friends whose taste I really admired—a DJ from New York, and a young woman from the Bay Area who frequently posted pictures of herself at music festivals to Facebook. In playing a few of their playlists, I had created the ultimate party soundtrack. I came across as a supremely hip host, without having to curate the music myself.

    The iPod, Pandora, and Spotify all allowed me to digitally deliver music to my guests. However, each delivery device is fundamentally different. Adding music to an iPod is far from a frictionless process. I had purchased the songs on my iPod over the course of several years, and to discover this music I depended on word of mouth of friends or the once-rudimentary recommendations of the iTunes store.

    With Pandora came access to a huge volume of music. The Internet radio station boasts a catalog of more than , tracks from 80, artists. The Music Genome Project is at the core of Pandora technology. Spotify has a catalog of nearly 20 million songs. The service, which launched in the United States in after lengthy negotiations with the major record labels, allowed users to publish their listening activity to Facebook and Twitter. The desktop player enabled users to follow one another, and make public playlists to which others could subscribe. The sharing of Spotify playlists between connected users mimicked the swapping of mixtape cassettes in the late eighties and early nineties.

    All of these are examples of how what the audience creates is a growing part of the creative process. In the heyday of the album, the exact flow of one song to another and the overall effect was the supreme expression of overall artistic design and control. It was a major advance over the 45, which provided a much smaller opportunity for a relationship with the band. With the arrival of MP3s, all of this was undone. Because we bought only the songs we were interested in, not only was the artist making less money, but he had lost control of what we were listening to and in what order.

    The Internet has given us many tools that allow us to personalize the listening experience. More than that, listening to music has increasingly become a personal activity, one that is done in isolation. The simplicity with which music can be consumed online has changed music from an immersive media to a more ambient media, one that is easily taken for granted.

    Interestingly, the rise in personal consumption of music via MP3 and the cloud has coincided with a sharp rise in festival culture. At a time where we collectively listen to billions of hours of streamed music each month, nothing compels us in a stronger fashion than the opportunity to come together, outdoors, often outside of cell phone range, to bask in performances by our favorite artist. Festival lineups are stacked with independent artists and superstars alike.

    Interestingly, a lineup is not unlike a long playlist on iTunes. There is no way to catch every performance at South by Southwest or Electric Daisy Carnival—but there is comfort in knowing that many of your favorite artists are there in one place. This has also proven out economically. At a time when selling recorded music had become ever-more challenging, the business of live music is experiencing a renaissance. The rise of festivals now one in every state of the U.

    It is a realization that beyond even the song itself, perhaps the most inspiring and rousing element of music is not just the music itself, but our collective human experience of it. Today, as the audience is restlessly making its own media, it is also learning fast that with new media come new rules and new exceptions. Media confer power on the formerly passive audience, and with that comes new responsibilities.

    This was made startlingly evident in the wake of the April 15, Boston Marathon bombings. Hours later, the Facebook page of Sunil Tripathi, a student who bore a resemblance to the suspect and was reported missing, was posted to the social news site Reddit. Word spread that this was the bomber. Within hours the story was amplified by the Internet news site BuzzFeed and tweeted to its , followers.

    Only, Tripathi had nothing to do with the crime. His worried family had created a Facebook page to help find their missing son. Four days later, an editor of Reddit posted to the blog a fundamental self-examination about crowd-sourced investigations and a reflection of the power of new media:. These communities and lives are now interconnected in an unprecedented way. Especially when the stakes are high we must strive to show good judgement and solidarity. One of the greatest strengths of decentralized, self-organizing groups is the ability to quickly incorporate feedback and adapt.

    We are now able to surround ourselves with news that conforms to our views. We collect friends whose tastes and opinions are our own tastes and opinions. The diversity of the Internet can ironically make us less diverse. Our new media are immersive, seductive, and addictive. On October 8, , a gunman entered a crowded San Francisco commuter train and drew a.

    He raised his weapon, put it down to wipe his nose, and then took aim at the passengers. None of the passengers noticed because they were attending to something far more interesting than present reality. They were subsumed by their smartphones and by the network beyond.

    These were among the most connected commuters in all of history. They were not especially connected to the moment or to one another. They were somewhere else. Only when the gunman opened fire did anyone look up. By then, year-old Justin Valdez was mortally wounded. The only witness to this event, which took place on a public train, in front of dozens of people, was a security camera, which captured the scene of connected bliss interrupted.

    As glowing screens dominate the public sphere, people seem more and more inclined to become engrossed, whether they are in a car or a train or are strolling through an intersection. In , Marshall McLuhan observed how completely new media work us over. A network that connects us together yet can disconnect us from our present reality.

    An Internet that grants us the ability to create and remix and express ourselves as never before. One that has conferred on us responsibilities and implications we are only beginning to understand. The most powerful tools in media history are not the province of gods, or moguls, but available to practically all mankind. Anderson, Chris. Bauder, David. Edison, Thomas.